Quality Criteria

First Step

The quality of an explosive ordnance investigation is to be assessed in a first step on the basis of the following points:

  • Are the aerial images evaluated multitemporally and stereoscopically (see FAQ No. 6)?
  • Is the attack chronicle based on research in different archives (see Historical Research)?
  • Are archival records and aerial photographs evaluated in combination?

In-depth evaluation

A preliminary exploration must provide reasoned answers to key questions:

  • Is there potential ordnance contamination in the investigated area?
  • On which causation scenario (air strikes, land combat, etc.) is the suspicion based?
  • Is there a reliable evaluation according to the current state of the art?

Quality criteria according to BFR KMR

The following quality criteria for the preliminary investigation of explosive ordnance are required according to the Construction Guidelines Explosive Ordnance Disposal (BFR KMR):

  • In order to obtain a complete picture of the attacks on a site, the attack chronicle must first be compiled without gaps.
  • In any case, archive records and aerial photographs are to be evaluated in combination.
  • If there is an initial suspicion of explosive ordnance contamination and the causes cannot be narrowed down in time, all suitable images are to be obtained as a matter of principle.
  • Stereoscopic pairs of vertical photographs are basically used.
  • If the required aerial photographs cannot be obtained from German sources, research or procurement in foreign archives becomes necessary.
  • Limitations in ground visibility - especially in heavily forested areas or due to shadowing - can be compensated for by the additional evaluation of a terrain model obtained from airborne laser scan data
  • The client must be able to understand how the evaluation results were obtained.

More on the topic

Explosive ordnance investigation


Aerial Photo Analysis


Historical Research




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